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AbstractInTthisTpaper,TITseekTtoTidentifyTwhichTfactorsTaffectTtheTSocio-EconomicTandTgenderTinequalityTregardingTtheTeducationTofTgirlsTandTboys,TasTwellTasofTwomenTandTmen,TacrossTtwoTcohortsTofTmarriedTwomenTinTBangladesh.TInTparticular,TITlookTatTtheTrelativeTimportanceTofTanTindividualTwoman’sTownTeducationalTbackgroundTandTthoseTofTherTspouseTandTotherTfamilyTmembersTinTshapingTherTattitudesTtowardTgenderTequalityTinTeducation.InequalityTisTlikeTanTepidemicTforTaTcountryTwhichTdestroysTaTcountry’sTdevelopmentTnotTonlyTforTaTgenerationTbutTalsoTforTaTlongTperiodTofTtime.TAmongTallTkindsTofTinequalitiesTgenderTinequalityTisTtheTextremeToneTasTitTaffectsTallTotherTsectors.TAsTwomenThasTcontributionTinTallTsectors.TBringingTwomenTintoTtheTmainstreamTeconomic
activitiesTandTensuringTequalTopportunityTisToneTofTtheTmajorTtargetsTofTMillenniumTDevelopmentTGoalsTasTpursuedTbyTtheTgovernmentTofTBangladesh.IntroductionITaimTtoTaddTtoTthisTbodyTofTworkTbyTlookingTatTchangesTinTattitudesTregardingTsomeTaspectsTofTSocioEconomicTandTgenderTinequalityTdueTtoTeducationTinTBangladeshTduringTaTperiodTofTrapidTsocialTtransformation.TThisTworkTisTofTparticularTsignificanceTforaTnumberTofTreasons.TFirstTwhileTinTdevelopedTcountriesTwithThighqualityTdatasets thereThaveTbeenTmanyTanalysesTofTgenderTnormsTandTattitudes,TinTdevelopingTcountrieswithTlessThigh-qualityTdataTthereThaveTbeenTrelativelyTfewTstudiesTonTgenderTnorms,TandTthoseTthatThaveTbeenTconductedThaveTbeenTrestrictedTtoTsmallTsamplesTandTtoTtopicsTsuchTasTattitudesTregardingTreproductiveTdecision making,TsexTpreferencesTforTchildren,TandTviolenceTagainstTwomen.TInTaddition,TmostTofTtheTresearchTconductedTinTdevelopingTcountriesThasTfocusedTonTusingTattitudesTasTexplanatoryTvariablesTforTaTnumberTofToutcomes,TratherTthanTasToutcomeTvariablesTinTtheirTownTright.PreviousTresearchTonTeducationTandTgenderTnormsThasTprimarilyTfocusedTonTtheTquestionTofTwhetherTeducationTisTaTliberalizingTinfluenceTorTaTconstraintTonTattitudesTregardingTgenderTequality.TTheTresultsTofTtheseTstudiesTare,TtoTsayTtheTleast,TequivocalT(KaneT1995).TITsituateTmyTanalysisTonTchangingTattitudesTregardingTgirl’sTeducationTwithinTtheToverallTcontextTofTeducationalTexpansionTinTBangladesh,TandTtheTdefinitionsTofTsexrolesTandTexpectationsTinTtheTculture.TBecauseTITprovideTquantitativeTevidenceTonTtheTdeterminantsTofTgenderTeducationTnormsTinTBangladesh,TmyTworkTalsoTcomplementsTtherelatedTearlierTworkTbyTSchulerTandTcolleagues,TwhichTinvolvedTindepthTinterviewsTandTgroupTdiscussionsT(see,Te.g.,TSchulerTetTal.T2006T(andTtheTreferencesTtherein)).BackgroundTBangladeshTprovidesTanTinterestingTcontextTforTanTanalysisTofTtheTchangesTinTgenderTnormsTregardingTeducation.TTheTgrowthTinTaccessTtoTeducation,TandTespeciallyTinTaccessTtoTsecondaryTeducationTforTgirls,TmayTbeTBangladesh’sTmostTdramaticTachievementTinTtheTlastTtwoTdecades.TInTtheTareaTofTfemaleTsecondaryTeducation,TBangladeshTstandsToutTasTaTshiningTsuccessTstoryTamongTlow-incomeTcountries,TBangladesh’sTprogressTisTespeciallyTcommendableTbecauseTtheTgrowthTinTfemaleTeducationTtookTplaceTwithinTaTdemocraticTregime,TandTstartedTfromTaTveryTlowTbase. FigureT1:TEnrollmentTratesTinTEducationTable:T1TGrossTenrollmentTratesTofTboysTandTgirlsTbyTlevelTandTregion

Primary
(GradeT1-5)

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LowerTSec.
(GradeT6-8)

Secondary
(GradeT9-10)

HigherTSecondaryT(11-12)

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

BarisalT

93.9

93.6

55.4

58.9

45.8

58.1

44.7

35

ChittagongT

83.5

84.5

48.1

58.2

37.2

49.9

34.6

32.8

DhakaT

86.1

84.5

52.7

58.4

62.2

66.6

32.3

33.3

KhulnaT

96.1

99.5

60.7

66.9

58.3

71.5

39.3

36.2

RajshahiT

85.5

91.5

53.5

70.3

50.3

57.5

38.2

33.4

SylhetT

83.2

85.7

57.1

36.3

39.7

58

29.1

28.5

 Source:TBANBEIST(GovernmentTofTBangladesh),T2015/016TheTgrowthTinTeducationTandTtheTaccompanyingTsocialTchangesThaveTprobablyTbeenTtheTmostTimportantTrecentTdevelopmentsTinTBangladesh,TbutTthereTareTothersTasTwell.TStartingTfromTaTveryTlowTbaseTofT9%,TfemaleTlaborTforceTparticipationTpickedTupTtoToverT22%TduringTtheTyearsT1993?2003.TWhile,TasTindicated,TtheTfemaleTlaborTparticipationThasTincreased,TtheTfemale-maleTgapTinTlaborTforceTparticipationT(LFP)ThasTalsoTincreasedTinTrelativeTtermsToverTtheTpastTfewTdecades:TInT1990TtheTLFPTwasT61.7%TforTfemalesTandT88.4TforTmales,TbutTbyT2011TitThadTdecreasedTtoT57.2%TforTfemalesTandT84.3%TforTmalesT(WDIT2013).TEvocativeTimagesTofThundredsTofTyoungTgirlsTwalkingTeveryTmorningTtoTtheTgarmentTfactoriesThaveTbeenTetchedTintoTtheTpopularTimaginationTasTaTmetaphorTforTprogress.TInfantTmortalityThasTdeclinedTfasterTinTBangladeshTthanTinTanyTotherTcountryTinTSouthTAsia.TTheTtotalTfertilityTrateTtodayTisTlessTthanTone-thirdTofTtheTrateTfourTdecadesTago,ThavingTdeclinedTfromTaboutT6.9TinT1971TtoTaboutT2.2TinT2011T(WDIT2013).TMeanwhile,TtheTmicrocreditTrevolutionTsweepingTtheTcountrysideThasTgivenTwomenTvisibilityTandTgreaterTstatus.TBetterTwaterTandTsanitationTfacilitiesThaveTreducedTtheTdrudgeryTexperiencedTbyTmothers,TwhoTnowThaveTtimeTforTotherTactivities.TAnTinformationTandTcommunicationTboomThasTresultedTfromTtheTwidespreadTavailabilityTofTradios,Ttelevisions,TandTmobileTphones.TTheTexpansionTofTruralTroadsTandTofTelectrificationThaveTenabledTmanyTpeopleTtoTfindTworkTbeyondTtraditionalTlow-productivityTcottageTindustries.TTheTavailabilityTofTmoreTsecureTmodesTofTtransportThasTalsoTgivenTpeopleTgreaterTmobility,TallowingTmoreTwomenTtoTmoveToutTofTtheirTvillagesTtoTtakeTjobsTinTtheTcityT(HossainTandTBoseT2004;TWorldTBankT2008).WhileTtheTprogressTdescribedTaboveTisTreal,TseriousTproblemsTremainTinTBangladesh,TandTnewTonesTareTsurfacing.TThus,TwhileTwomen’sTstatusThasTimprovedTdramaticallyTinTtheTlastTfewTdecades,TgenderTinequalitiesTpersistTinTmanyTareas,TsuchTasTinTaccessTtoTmarkets,TpoliticalTforums,TandThigh-techTservices.TMoreover,TthereTareTsharpTdisparitiesTbasedTonTanTindividual’sTplaceTofTresidence,TwealthTquintile,TandTethnicity.TTheTpracticeTofTdowryTpaymentsTisTonTtheTrise,TandTisToneTofTtheTreasonsTwhyTtheTaverageTgirlTisTmarriedToffTbyTtheTtimeTsheTisT15TyearsTold.ITdescribedTaboveTtheTextentTtoTwhichTeducationThasTexpandedTinTBangladesh.TITalsoTnotedTthatTeducationalTopportunitiesTforTgirlsThaveTchangedTtheTconservativeTmarriageTmarket,TasTincreasingTnumbersTofTwomenTare,TinTcontrastTtoTtheirTmothers’generation,TmarryingTmenTlessTeducatedTthanTthem.TClearly,TtheTdemandTforTeducationTisTnotTonlyTcontingentTonTculturalTreasons,TbutThasTsomeTimportantTstructuralTcorrelates.TForTtheTpastTtwoTdecades,TBangladeshThasTpursuedTaTpolicyTofTenhancingTgirl’sTeducationTthroughTinnovativeTincentiveTschemesTthatTprovideTstipendsTtoTgirlsTwhoTremainTenrolledTinTsecondaryTschool.TOverTtheTpastTdecade,TNGOsThaveTalsoTcontributedTsubstantiallyTtoTtheTexpansionTofTeducationalTopportunitiesTforTgirlsTandTofTlaborTmarketTopportunitiesTforTwomenT(WorldTBankT2008:TChT1).

However,TrecentTqualitativeTworkThasTshownTthatTperceptionsTamongTSouthTAsiansTofTgirl’sTeducationTandTgenderTnormsTinTgeneralTareTchangingTrapidly.TToday,TlocalTpopulationsTtakeTgreatTprideTinTtheTexpansionTofTgirl’sTeducationTinTtheirTtowns,TandTinTtheTimpactTthisTexpansionThasTonTtheTcommunity,TtheTwell-beingTofTchildren,TandTtheTempowermentTofTwomenT(WorldTBankT2008:TChT3).THowTandTwhyTdidTthisTchangeTinTperceptionsTofTeducationTcomeTabout?TAtTtheTmacroTlevel,TITargueTthatTaTsupply-sideTpushTforTeducationTtappedTtheTlatentTdemandTforTeducationTamongTfamiliesTofTgirls,TwhichTseemsTtoThaveTexistedTalongsideTconservativeTnormsTandTvalues.TOnceTtheTimpactTofTeducationTonTgirlsTandTcommunitiesTbecameTapparent,TthisTfueledTfurtherTdemand.TWomen’sTaccessTtoTnewTjobTopportunitiesTinTtheTgarmentTsectorTandTwithTNGOsTshowedTfamiliesTthatTgirlsTcanThaveTanTeconomicTworthTasTwell.TGloballyTofTcourse,ThigherTreturnsTtoTeducationTforTwomenThaveTbeenTshownTinTaTnumberTofTstudies,TincludingTPsacharopoulos’T(1994)Tcross-countryTreview,TaTstudyTbyTSchultzT(1994),TandTresearchTfromTsuchTdiverseTsettingsTasTTaiwanT(GindlingTetTal.T1995),TtheTCzechTRepublicTandTSlovakiaT(ChaseT1997),TandTIndiaT(MalathyTandTDuraisamyT1993;TDuraisamyT2000).

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