2.1Introduction This chaptergives some theories addressing term about Sociolinguistic (gender, socialstatus, age and self-image) and Pragmatic as the part of the politeness. Theprevious research will be mention it too, to give the description on thedevelopment of the concept addressing term and politeness.
2.2Sociolinguistic Sociolinguisticconnected with how language is used by different groups in society and have relation to social factors,including differences of regional, class, and occupational dialect, genderdifferences, and bilingualism. For achieve more better and understanding aboutsociolinguistic about nature of human language, nature of relationship, orinteraction by studying language and society. Basically sociolinguistic is thestudy of language and society. Holmes (1996, ”p.16”) ‘thesociolinguist’s aim is to move towards a theory which provides a motivatedaccount of the way language is used in a community, and of the choices peoplemake when they use language.’ For example, when we observe how varied languageuse is we must search for the causes.
sociolinguistics actually is not about structureof a language, but it focuses on how a language is used, so it (language) couldplay its function well. AccordingChaer and Agustina (2004:2-5) mentioned that sociolinguistic is a disciplinary study between sociology andlinguistic which have relation. Sociology is objective and scientific discourseabout human in community, and institutions, and social process. Sociology triesto know how the community happens, exists, and keep goes on. The human could beunderstood how they adapt the environment.
For about sociolinguistics, it meansa study to learning language, so language as an object of matter.So, that’s why when people go outside theyneed a language, or they will find some trouble to do their activities, andsociolinguistic analyze how to use the language for relationship in social andcultural aspects. That’s why we need to understand the role of language insociety. 2.3 Pragmatic Pragmatic is one of the branchesfrom the study of linguistic relating to the study presented by the speaker.Pragmatic more related to the study with the analysis what is the meant by thespeech, compare to what is intended by the word or phrase linguistically.Pragmatic is the study of speaker meaning as distinct from word or sentencemeaning (Yule, 1996:4).
So, pragmatic isthe study presented by the speaker regardless of the meaning of word orsentence. According to Cappelen and Lepore (2005:136) pragmatic is the study ofhow meaning is affected by context. Based on that statement pragmatic is thestudy need interpretation in context and how the context can be affected themeaning. This is needed for the intended meaning by the speaker to reach thatperson. So, the study of pragmatic closely related to the context. In pragmatichave contextual meaning. Levinson (1983:21) say pragmatic is the study of the relation betweenlanguage and context that are basic to an account of language understanding. Based on that statement to understandsomeone language, the speaker not only know the meaning of the word in relatedwith the context as the basic to understand a language.
From the three opinion, pragmatic is the study which can see from thespeaker. Basically the meaning word behind the speaker, so not just understandthe speaker language. 2.
4 Adress Term Address term can know as term of address orform of address usually addressing term have named, title or phrase and inaddressing term calling someone’s is the common way of addressing someone.Wardaugh (2000:264) implies that the person must consider the classification addressingterms, such as; addressing using name, addressing of closing relationship,intimate term, addressing of kinship term, addressing of respectful term, evenaddressing of mockeries. Also, a term of address may be friendly,unfriendly, neutral, respectful, disrespectful, or comradely. According Braun (1988:7) addressterm is word or phrases used for addressing.Based on the statement, now addressterm is the word to communicate our feeling / message to that person. For example, “How are you, friends!” So, from the wordfriend can use by the speaker to greet that person.
Having deep understanding aboutaddressing term is not an easy matter. Wardaugh (1993:253)confirms that the actual rules of address in a society are as complex as societyitself. So someone can address same or different person with different ways. Itis due to social context. Thereare some kinds of addressing term, here: a.Usingname In term of using name, the speakeronly call the name to addressing someone ex:Janet, Shirou, Kimberly, etc. b.
Using kinship In term of using kinship, thespeaker not call the last name and directly using kinship term ex:for mother (Mom, Mam, Mummy),Father (Dad, Daddy, Papa), Grandmother (gran, grandma, nana, nan)for grandfather we use (grandad,grandpa, granpy, gramps, pops), etc. c. Using intimacy / endearment Inthis term of intimacy / skinship, the speaker use the polite term to substitutethe name for people we are very close to or to whom we want to show affectionor friendship.ex: darling, dear, poppet (usually to alittle child), love, luvvie,sweetheart.d. Using respect Inthis term the speaker use title before name to addressing someone ex: Mr,Mrs, Ms, Dr, Prof and the surname in more formalsituations.
e. Using group Interm of using group, the speaker usually addressing someone more than oneex: guys,everyone/everybody, children, boys, lads, girls, ladies, gentlemen.f. Using very polite term In this term the speaker use the title without the name usuallymostoften in places such as shops or hotels where a service is being given.ex: Madam, Sir g. Using for job Inthis term the speaker don’t normally call people by the name of their job orprofession.ex: doctor(medical), driver, nurse, minister,officer, waiter.
h. Using for mockeryIn this term thespeaker usually addresses the other by using mockery terms in this kind. ex : fool, freak, damn, etc. Based on three opinions, address term have relation withsociological, anthropological, and social psychological. Because address term alsoinvolved with authority, solidarity, politeness, status, education, job, age,gender, race, ethnicity, region and ideology between the speaker and thatperson. 2.
5 Politeness Politeness is the culture or habit apply in thesociety. Politeness comprises linguistic and non-linguistic behavior throughwhich people indicate that they take others’ feelings of how they should betreated into account. Politeness have a rule to be mutually upon together. So,based on the statement (Ruhi, 2008) Politeness coversbehaviors through which people indicate that they take others’ feelings of howthey should be treated into account, and it comes into operation throughevaluative moments.
While productive intention is important in politenessbehavior. Basically politeness show the concern toward individual. Being politetherefore consists of attempting to save face for another. Politeness can reach by socialcloseness like teacher with student or teacher with fellow teacher. For example1. Teacher with student”Excuse me, Ms Clara, may I ask you about thisquestion” 2. Teacher with fellow teacher “Hey, Claire, got a minute”From the example number 1 and 2 have differentsocial closeness can affected the concern toward individual. Example number 1use by the student toward the teacher and the student use polite language.
Different from number 8 the fellow teacher use nonformal language. This one toshow self – image in pragmatic called “face”. AccordingBrown and Levinson (in Miriam, 2006:84), suggested that it was useful todistinguish two types of politeness. Their technique strategies called avoidoffence with two different types negative politeness by showing deference andpositive politeness by highlighting friendliness.
They also say a strategypolite or impolite depends what kind of attention a speaker pays to their ownand their addresse’s face wants. Aperson’s negative face is the need to independent, to have freedom of action,and not be imposed by others. The word ‘negative’ here doesn’t mean ‘bad’, it’sjust the opposite pole from ‘positive’ face is the need to be accepted, evenliked, by others, to be treated as a member of the same group, and to know thathis or her wants are shared by others. In simple terms, negative face is theneed to be independent and positive face is the need to be connected (Yule,1996 : 61 – 62) from Yule statement is the requisite for someone to beindependent, have freedom act and can’t be lowered by another individual. Sonegative it’s not something bad just opposite from the positive. Positive faceis the requisite for someone to be accepted, liked and known by anotherindividual, can be treated equally by the group.
Frombased the three opinions, politeness and face are the basic wants in any socialinteraction, and so during any social interaction, cooperation and politenessis needed among the participants to maintain each others’ faces.2.6Speaking Strategy To analyze thisresearch, the writer will use the other theory from researcher to support thisresearch. This theory also have relation with expressing addressing termespecially in speaking.
According Hyme (1974) a speech situation can only beunderstood if not only linguistic, but also other aspects are taken intoconsideration, such as : the setting of the communication, and the informationabout the participants. In order to reflect all these factors and to helpspeaking act analyze to make more in-depth analysis, Hymes coined the followingacronym : SPEAKING model/paradigm.a. S = Setting / Scenesetting refers to the time and place with naturalsituation, the influence will be happen to the speaker to choosing addressingterm. People can choose formal language where the speech situation is takingplace, for example : a University lecture hall this is the setting the overallmood and context is the conversation serious or funny ; what is the culturalambiance) – this is the scene psychological setting. Or they choose talking in the office than in apicnic place. b.
P = Participants Participant is all the people who join theconversation (speaker and audience) for example the audience can bedistinguished as addresses and other hearers (Hymes 54 & 56). Basicallysocial status can be influenced the language. c. E = Ends (goals)Ends is what are the goals but the actual outcome ofspeaking act is different, for example Kevin wanted to confess his love toKaty, but instead of saying “I love you”, he awkwardly murmured “It is good tosee you, and today the weather really nice”.
As a result, his confession wasput off. d. A = Act SequenceAct sequence is what happens is the first thing,second, etc. Also how exactly the events unfold. For example a FAQ section of awebsite: short questions first, brief answers follow; a TV host interviewing auniversity student-hero and the applause of the audience).e.
K = KeyKey is refer to tone, manner, spirit, feelingmessage of the speaking act (Hymes 57). Basically whether the situation isformal or not, whether the participants are happy or sad. For example : aninformal birthday party, a family reunion, or a group purely emphasing, respectand praise the story with serious voice. f. I = Instrumentalities Instrumentalities is the linguistic andnon-linguistic tools used to make the speech act possible more refer to thelanguage, dialect, etc.
For example telephone, telegraph, writing, etc.g. N = NormsNorms is the conventions used by the speakers toarrive at their set communicative goals using code. For example eye contact ,asking question, etc. h.
G = Genre Genre is The kind of speech act or event for ourcourse the kind of story. Different discipline act develop terms for kinds ofspeech acts, and speech communities sometimes have their own type. For example: final research paper, poem form, a small talk before a class. These are the popular components of speaking in theconversation might not need activate all together. Some of the factors might behelpful to describe the factor in speaking that influence the languagephenomenon like term of language.