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2.0 Introduction to communication



is the process where one person is expressing his or her idea and the other one
is idea being expressed by the one who is talking. That’s how you define the
communication. When this results to have an understanding both of them.
Therefore there is already a communication.

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is the process of exchanging information through a common system of symbols.
These symbols can include sign language, speaking, writing, expressions or
pictorial graphs and charts. Communication is thus the process of sharing
information, ideas, concepts, and messages, between people. It is the core of
all human relationships. Communication is essentially a two-way process can be
considered complete only when the message generated by the recipient. The
recipient in turn communicates is understanding of the message through words or
actions. This is called feedback and it completes the process of communication.


society we share our thoughts, feelings, emotions, reactions, propositions, and
facts and figures with individuals as well as groups at all level, higher,
lower or equal. Communication is, in fact, the most important of all our
activities as it has helped us to organize ourselves as a civilized society. In
a civilized society there are well defined roles for all and one. They only way
to play these roles is through communication. All communication is based on,
and is guide by relationships. Only when we understand and appreciate these relationships
can we successfully communicate. Communication is essentially the ability of
one person make contact with another and to make himself or herself understood.


2.1 Evolution of










Figure2.1; Evolution of communication



thousand years ago, sharing information was very difficult. Books are cost a
lot of money because there was no quick or easy way to print them. Few people
ever saw a book. As a result, most people never learned to read. Sharing
information fast with people who lived far away was just a dream.


someone in person was the only way before communication technology explosion.
First Greeks used a phonetic alphabet. Before human beings created languages
and alphabets they communicated with both sounds and body languages. After
human beings created languages and alphabets they used letters and symbols to


created and improved over centuries, changed that situation. Inventions made it
easier for people to communicate, or share information. People used new
inventions such as telephones and radio to communicate with each other. The
inventions became so important that life without them is hard to imagine. Just
try to imagine life without telephones, TV, or the Internet.



2.2 Types of communication








Figure2.2; Types of communication
Source (Author organize work 2017)




communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message
and its context in which it is being sent. Choice of communication channel and
your style of communicating also affect communication.



there are varieties of types of communication.



Communication can be categorized
into three basic types: (1) verbal communication, in which you listen
to a person to understand their meaning; (2) written communication, in
which you read their meaning; and (3) nonverbal communication, in which
you observe a person and infer meaning.




2.2.1. Verbal


communication is the use of words and sounds to express yourself.


E.g.      Meetings





 2.2.2. Non Verbal

communication is the communication through sending and receiving wordless
messages. They are all intentional and unintentional messages that are not
written or spoken.


           E.g.       Body

                        Facial Expressions

                        Eye Contact




2.2.3. Written

communication involves any type of messages that makes use of written word.
Written communication is the most important and most effective any mode of
business communication.


            E.g.      E-mail









3.0 Process of




Process can be different
types in the shape of its forming. It can be horizontal communication process
(One way communication process), Circular communication process and two way
communication process. The thing is depended on how a communication flows
complete the process.


The communication process is the stages we take in
order to successfully communicate. Elements of the communication
process include a sender, encoding of a message, selecting of a media of communication,
receipt of the message by the receiver and decoding of the message.


The target of communication is to proceed information and the
catch of that information from one person or group to another person or group.
This communication process is divided by three basic elements:

 A sender transmits
a message through a media to the receiver. The
sender first develops an idea, which is composed into a message and then
transmitted to the other party, who understands the message and receives
meaning. Information theorists have added somewhat more complicated language.
Developing a message is known as encoding. Understanding the
message is referred to as decoding.


















A short comparison of different types of communication
process are below:





Table3.1; Comparison of
one way & two way communication

Source (Author organize work 2017)

way communication process

way communication process

There is sender, a message and

There is response from the
receiver to the sender.

Hard to understand.

Easier to understand.

The sender is conveying message to
receivers without expecting the receivers to ask questions about the message.

Receivers can ask questions about it.

Message is being traveled to one

Two way communications is the
effective communication.

No response from the receiver. So
we can’t say exactly whether the receiver received the message or not.



3.1 One way communication process



When communication flows like a straight line
from sender to the receiver of a message, it takes a shape of horizontal
communication process. It is also known or stated as one way
process of communication.







Figure3.2; One way communication process



 3.2 Two way
communication process



Two way communication
process is the steps of two way
communication system. In such process, sender sends message
using some intermediary Medias and the receiver of that message makes a
response to the sender what is called as feedback.
In this communication process, proper feedback
is expected. And that’s why it makes this process as effective
communication process.













Figure3.3; Two way
communication process



3.3 Business communication



of messages between members who work interdependently to accomplish organizational
goals it involves the flow of communication and the structure through which
messages are exchanged among an organization’s members.




3.3.1. Types of
communication at work



















Figure3.4; Upward
& Downward communication
Source (author organize work 2017)











Horizontal communication
           Source (author organize work



4.0 Importance of communication



way we communicate with others and with ourselves ultimately determines the
quality of our lives.



It helps you to increase
productivity and results.
Reducing stress and managing
things well.
Understanding the need of
today’s world.
Save time, sharing ideas, learn
new things etc.
Better understanding of how to
get your message across.




Communication is
very important for all beings. Animals and humans, use their own
separate languages to communicate with one another, because no one
can survive without communicating. The importance of communication
skills cannot be underestimated.



person can avail himself of life skills to the maximum level if he has self-awareness,
efficiency, communication skills and the ability to solve problems through
interpersonal relationships.


instance, powerful communication skills enable a person to freely voice his
positive views and impress his ideas on other members of society.



5.0 Barriers to communication



There are lot of communication barriers faced nowadays.
The message meant by the sender is not understood by the receiver in the same
terms and feel and thus communication breakdown occurs. It’s necessary to deal
with these communication barriers so as to safe smooth and effective




5.1 Main barriers to communication




A sender’s
manipulation of message so that it will be seen more pleasurable by the

Selective Perception

selectively understand what they look on the basis of their interests,
experiences and attitude.


Information Overload

condition in which information inflow overloads an individual’s processing


How a
receiver feels at the time a message is received will encouragement how the
message is understand.


Words have
different meanings to different people.

Communication Apprehension

tension and chaotic about communication.









5.2 Methods to
overcome the barriers



Connecting with the audience.
Summarizing what has been said.
Be sensitive to receiver’s
point of view.
Use direct, simple language, or
at least use language appropriate to the receiver.
Give constructive feedback.
Proper media selection.
Reduction & elimination of
noise levels.
Simple Organizational
Flexibility in meeting the
Active listening.


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