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1. Pliable means easily bent or flexible. I would say that skin of a frog is pliable because of its high moisture content. Their smooth skin is not only air-permeable which allows oxygen to pass through but also water permeable which allows water to be be let in and out. A frog breathes through its skin through a process called cutaneous gas exchange. When submerged in water, all of the frog’s breathing takes place through the skin. Although frogs have lungs, the ability to absorb oxygen from moist surroundings is especially useful to frogs that burrow deep or hibernate in underwater mud. Frogs are covered with mucus-secreting glands that keep their slippery skin moist and pliable.2. The coloration on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the frog are different because it helps with camouflage. The underside (ventral side) of the frog is a lighter color than the top side (dorsal side) because if the frog is swimming on top of the water and a predator is searching for a frog, the sun’s glare makes the frog difficult to spot. There are sometimes even shady marks on the ventral side and because of this, it doesn’t expose the silhouette of the frog. Some of the frog’s upper side is darker so that when swimming in the underneath of a dark pond, it matches the bottom of the pond. Some frogs can also change color and some have even developed certain patterns on their back which makes it easy to blend in with surroundings and makes it hard for enemies to detect it. 3. A frog’s tongue is very different than a human’s tongue and is attached very differently. Human tongues are attached to the backs the mouth, compared to the tongues of frogs which are attached right where their mouths start. This is because frog tongues are designed to extend out so that they can catch prey and then retrieve back in. This process that is called a “lingual flip.” Frogs are not only different from people in how their tongues are attached but also from most creatures. When a frog’s mouth is open their tongues are driven forward by muscle contractions. This action rapidly tugs frogs’ mouths down, which then directs the rear portion of the tongues outward. This is how a frog is able to stretch its tongue so much in order to get prey.4.Their maxillary teeth are located on the top parts of their jaws. These teeth are hidden from the outside. The size and outline of maxillary teeth are all pretty similar to each other. Similar to the vomerine teeth, the maxillary teeth also serve to keep prey under control until frogs are ready to tuck in and eat, which usually happens pretty quickly. 5. The function of the vomerine teeth is to eat prey. Specifically, to grip onto food in along with their tongues. Frogs tongues and vomerine teeth work as a team to stop prey animals from being able to flee. The vomerine teeth are much sharper and appear in pairs of tiny clusters on the roof of their mouths. The mucous membranes hide the vomerine teeth, but not entirely. 6. A frog benefits from having its nostrils on top of it head because it makes it possible for the frog to float on the surface of the water, while leaving its external nares above the water level for inhaling oxygen. The internal nares are on the roof of a frog’s mouth. The air passes from the external nares into the mouth through these openings. They can be closed using a sphincter muscle when the frog is under water to prevent water from entering the mouth and therefore the lungs. If a frog had its nostrils somewhere else then it would not be able to float on water because it wouldn’t be able to breathe. It would either have to 7. The texture of the lungs felt squishy and  spongy to me. I found out that this was  because of the millions of alveoli inside them. Alveoli are tiny air sacs that have pores in them to allow for the diffusion of oxygen. The lungs have a very porous structure, similar to an actual sponge. The lungs take on a spongy appearance and feel like a sponge to the touch. The large amount of surface area that lungs have is necessary to absorb oxygen also gives them that spongy feel. Both the lungs of frogs and humans have alveoli, the tiny vessels that make the gas exchange. But the alveoli in humans are more densely packed because humans breathe only through their lungs.8. The frogs that live mostly in water have made special adaption so that they could survive in this environment. One adaptation they have made making their feet webbed. Their webbed feet allows them to swim faster due to the increased surface area. Because the webbed feet create more surface area, the frogs create more force when they stroke the surrounding water. A frog also have adapted their skin. Their skin color is a dappled pattern of green, brown and yellow helps with camouflage. When the frog is swimming, the dorsal side is dark and the ventral side is light which makes the frog hard to see from both above or below Another amazing thing that the frog’s skin can do is that it is water permeable which means that water can be let in and out. A frog breathes through its skin through a process called cutaneous gas exchange. When submerged in water, all of the frog’s breathing takes place through the skin. The thin membranous skin allows the respiratory gases to diffuse directly between the blood vessels and the surroundings9. The frogs that live mostly on land have made special adaptations so that they could survive in this environment. If they live in a forest with lots of trees, they adapt by having sticky pads on their toes so they can stick to the trees. Frogs can also change color which makes it easy to blend in with its surrounding making it hard for enemies to detect it. When the frog is out of the water, mucus glands in the skin keep the frog moist, which helps absorb oxygen from the air.

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