This portfolio is about Quality Management of human life as a Khalifah based on the Islamic Approach. Based on Philip Crosby, one of the Quality Gurus, he said that “Quality is a conformance to requirements”. It means that qualities are fit with its purposes. When something is doing excellence, its show that it is a high quality’s work.
So here, what is the meaning by ‘quality’ in Islamic perceptions based on human life? Allah has created human to prostrate(sujood) to him. So, if we want to have a quality life as a human (khalifah), we need to comply through His Messenger.
I am also believe on definition that quality is an ever changing state that means what is considered quality today may not be good enough to be considered quality tomorrow. This definition was accurate based on my experience as a daughter, worker and servant of Allah SWT. Here we can clearly see that we must have many more things to do in order to become a quality human life.
Quality is the standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind; the degree of excellence of something. Inspection, quality control and quality assurance are the most influences in order to reach the total quality management. Those are known as evolution of quality.
QA refer as any planned and systematic activity directed towards providing consumers with product of appropriate quality, along with confidence that products meet consumers’ requirement (Evans & Lindsay, 2008). Next, QC is one part of QA, it emphasizes testing of product to uncover defects and reporting to management who make the decision to allow or deny the release. There are several processes on QC are assessing actual quality performance (pre control), compare actual performance with performance goals (concurrent control) and take immediate steps to resolve differences between planned performance and actual performance (corrective control).
2. QUALITY IN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE
Islam as a righteous way of a complete life (Syumul) focuses on achieving success (al-falah) in this world and the Hereafter. It stresses the goodness of everything done by each and every human being. As a living system that includes all aspects of life, including the aspects of Aqidah (Belief) Ibadah (Worship) and Akhlak (Ethics).
Allah SWT commands humans to follow the teachings of Islam as a whole for the betterment of life in this world and the Hereafter. Those are the people who benefited from the dunya (world) and will not lose in Hereafter (akhirah). Indeed, the quality and enhance the work is generally not a new thing in Islam. Islam teaches us to ihsan and itqan (good and quality) to do the work. The Quran say: “Thou seest the mountains and thinkest them firmly fixed: but they shall pass away as the clouds pass away: (such is) the artistry of Allah, Who disposes of all things in perfect order: for He is well-acquainted with all that we do.” (Quran, 27: 88)
And there are many hadith which encourage beautifying and improving worship. In a Hadith narrated by Al- Bayhaqi that Prophet Mohammad may Allah bless him said: “Allah loves that if one of you is doing something to do it masterfully (itqan).” These texts urge on doing work masterfully without imperfections or defects and call people to be honest and trustworthy in the works they do.
From the above description, we find that in Islam Muslim must always be kind and adorn themselves with good characters such as: loving work, auditing and accounting, honest self-monitoring, teamwork, cooperation and solidarity among members of the community in which it all is the quality management principles commonly used today. So here, we can see that the terms quality are equated in meaning to the term of advantage and excellence in the Quran and the Hadith.
According to Shukri Muhammad Salleh (2003), management from the Islamic perspective involves three level of relationships. These relationships include the vertical relationship between man and God (hablun-minallah) and horizontal relationship between human and natural resources (hablun-minal alam). Besides this, Islamic management must also be based on tasawwur and Islamic epistemology. It is based on the belief that Allah SWT is the Creator, man as a creature and the universe also as a creature. It is also based on Islamic epistemology, which is the main source of al-Qur’an, Hadith and consensus of Muslim scholars (Ijma?). International Academic Research Journal of Business and Technology 1(2) 2015, Page 208-213.
So we can conclude that the basic tasawur includes three basic elements: First, relationship between man and God (hablun-minallah). Second, relationship between human to human (hablun-minannas) and third, relationship between human with environmental or surrounding (hablun-minal?alam). All three these elements will become the core of the formation of the concept of quality according to Islamic perspective.
2.1 Relationship between Man and God (Hablun-Minallah)
This principle is closely related to the beliefs of monotheism (Aqidah Tauhid). Tauhid as a principle of belief in the Creator, the Administrator, the Lord of the universe, He has character and names, and to Him is the direction and purpose human life and all creatures.
Allah Almighty has given clear guidance in the Quran. The fact the real goal of human life is to gain the pleasure of Allah and earn His heaven. The Quran say: “Allah promiseth to the believers, men and women, Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide – blessed dwellings in Gardens of Eden. And – greater (far)! – Acceptance from Allah. That is the supreme triumph.” (Quran, 9: 72).
From the quality perspective, these principles of Tawhid serve as the vital foundation to every human involved in the organization activity. All of it activities? not only to satisfy the customers or to maximize the institution profit, but it goes way beyond all of it as it seeks to attain the blessings (redha) from Allah SWT.
According to Muhamad Faisal and Mohd Rizal M., (Tt) quality issues in Islam is closely related to the pursuit of excellence. In Islam, this excellence refers to the pleasure of Allah. It is not only measured in utilitarian considerations in the secular concept (Ab. Ghani, A., & Mansor, F., 2006). This utilitarian refers to the aspects seen quantitatively as cost reduction, productivity percentage, the percentage rate of return and so on. Central to this is the quality and excellence character building is made (Wan Omar, W., 1996). Therefore all the good deeds and worship, including a Muslim work, must comply with the code of religious ethics, and also fulfill a work ethic that has been designated by the employer in order to be accepted by Allah (Fadzil, D., 1992, Tengku Kasim, T., & Mansor, F., 2007)
2.2 Relationship between Human to Human (Hablun-Minnnaas)
The second principle is closely related to the mission of human life. In the context of Islamic Worldview, a major role of man is as a servant of God and inheritors (chalif) of the earth.Quran Say: “And (recall) when your Lord said to the angels: “I am about to place My vicegerent on the earth.? They submitted: “Will You put Your (vicegerent) on the earth such as will do mischief in it and shed blood, whilst we are engaged in glorifying You with celebrating Your Praise and extolling Your Holiness (all the time)?? (Allah) said: “I know that which you do not know.” (Quran, 2: 30).
In addition to the inheritors (khalifah), people also have a mission as ‘abid (slave) to Allah SWT. Which has an obligation to ensure that all aspects of his life dedicated to the worship of Allah SWT. Quran say: “And tell them that I have not created the invisible beings and men to any end other than that they may know and worship Me.” (QS. Al-Zariyat: 56).
In the context of Quality, this second principle would have a positive impact on human life by itself and its environment. Product or service provided to others is a form of worship to God. The production of products and services must be in line with God’s law (shari’ah) – the law related to cleanliness, and the spiritual values such as mahmudah (good manners) and mazmumah (bad attitude). It will also be in the context of preserving the environment as well as human and natural resources.
This concept is different from the concept of conventional economics, where humans are regarded as economic beings whose function is to produce and use only (Hagen, 1985 & 1962). While based on the tasawur, man as a creature of God, are expected to do more than that. Activities of production and consumption are only a part of the human instrument to live or defending specific functions given to them (Fadzila Azni, 2010). The special function is as a servant of God and inheritors.
2.3 Relationship between Human and Environmental (Hablun-Minal ‘alam)
All creation as in the heavens and in the earth belongs to Allah SWT. He is the creator and owner of all natural resources. While environmental resources were created by God and became his right. Nevertheless, all of which were created by God for man. Quran Say: “To Allah belongs what is in the heavens and what is in the earth. If you disclose what is in your hearts or conceal it, Allah shall hold you accountable for it, then He will forgive whom He wills and punish whom He wills. Allah is powerful over everything.” (Quran, 2: 284). “And (We sent) to (the people of) Thamud their (kinship) brother Salih. He said: “O my people, worship Allah. You have no God apart from Him. He is the One Who raised you up from the earth and settled you therein. So, beg His forgiveness and then turn to Him in repentance. Surely, my Lord is Near, Granting prayers.” (Quran, 11: 61).
Features in Quality Management
Quality management requires a number of features that can be implemented to achieve the goals of the organization. Between quality management features include:
2.1 Effective Leadership
Organization requires a leader who acts as a champion (hero) and this kejaguhan generally accepted. Organisations need to create heroes that much if you want to grow and motivate employees. Strong organizational culture can be described by a respected individual leadership. The success of the leader will be the topics of conversation and stimulus to all employees. In addition, the successful leader of an organization can improve its image17. This is because the caliber of leaders who will make every effort to improve the quality and organization.
Leaders must have the vision or long-term goals and be focused on achieving the goal gradually. Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, former Prime Minister of Malaysia, once said to be a good leader they should have long-term plans: “I believe that the leader should look ahead rather than solely profit”18. Leaders with a forward-thinking organization can make always ready with any situations that will occur in the near future.
A leader is trustee of a large and they must fulfill their responsibilities. S.W.T word of God, which means:
“O ye who believe, do not betray (trust) in Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad) and (also) do not betray your trust entrusted to you, and you knows is wrong”
Surah Al-Anfal (8) : 27
Islam takes special care to include the aspect of leadership characteristics, the approach adopted by the leaders as well as environmental factors that influence the style of leadership. Islamic leadership model outlined several key features that need to be adopted by a Muslim leader. These features include the ability, honesty, passion, patience and honesty. Leaders also must practice what he had said19. God’s Word S.W.T. :
“O ye who believe! Why do you say what you do not? It is most hateful in the sight of Allah that ye say that which you do not do ”
Surah al-?off (61): 2-3
According to Mustafa Haji Daud (1994) chief of the leadership is the result of cooperation between individuals. Every organization needs a leader who works for the common goal. Islam encourages each organization to appoint a chief as a symbol of encouragement to live in, especially in the organization. This is based on the traditions of the Prophet says20:
Hadith the prophet was explained that the importance of appointing a leader in an organization or even a state. This is because the leaders have an important role in controlling the behavior of his servants or employees from doing things that could jeopardize the relationship between the group members as conflicting opinions and conflicting interpretations.
2.2 Providing Quality and Strategic Planning
Strategic management can be defined as an art to make forecasting and directing the movement and operation of a body to achieve specific goals. It is based on implementing the tactics employed (Lewis, 1994). Strategic planning has helped many organizations in the private sector and increasingly in the public sector. Through this process, government departments in this country have a clear idea who their customers, customer needs to determine the type of output to be removed. Successful strategic planning is often as a strategic planning model involving strategic alignment. Strategic planning is also suitable as a basis for the department’s mission and quality objectives and to determine improvement programs suitable for short and long term21. Strategic planning is crucial implemented in an organization’s vision and mission that they are easy and fast to reach.
Planning is a process of using available resources more economically and efficiently in order to achieve organizational goals. In addition, the plan also can help reduce uncertainty in the future and thus enable the organization to do the job better and more effective. Strategic planning is the process of setting goals and determining policies and programs needed to achieve organizational goals and set method should be used to ensure that programs and policies are implemented effectively22. When this objective is reached, the next it will increase consumer confidence in goods or services they provide to customers.
At the time of the Prophet are also strategic planning that has been used by the prophet. Many examples cited in this context is the Prophet migrated from Mecca to Medina, a strategic move that brought major implications on the history of Islam. Throughout the history of the mission ceased, he has been through many events, some of which occur without any planning as Isra ‘and Mi’raj is happening in miracles absolutely, but most of the others there with him as events planning emigration. It happened so God wills to set an example to people to think, plan and strategy23. Islam has emphasized the aspect of planning must be closely and regularly before the start of an action. Therefore, to ensure the quality, strategic planning needs to be done and in accordance with Islamic requirements.
Teamwork refers to a group of employees in organizations that are working together to perform the duties of each other and join together to achieve collective goals. Team members will interact closely, share information, make decisions and take responsibility together to perform duties specified in the scope of delegated authority29.
Each member of the company must work together in planning to select, develop, make decisions that involve the ongoing development program and will be implemented. The effect of co-operation will foster a sense of mutual help, respect and responsibility30. This cooperation is very important applied within the organization to facilitate the planned projects in an organization’s quality program to be implemented easily and get support from all members of the organization.
Teamwork is one of the characteristics of quality management.Team work is a collaboration between the manager or head of department personnel responsible for planning and carrying out their responsibilities properly31. Use the team approach in problem solving, have many advantages from the individual to let a separate problem32.
According to Islam this team is working together in unison is working with others in a team. Islam encourages its followers to do a job or in congregational worship. As the order of God in the Quran that says:
And Help one you in the (work) charity and piety, and do not help one another in sin and rancor. And fear Allah, surely Allah is severe in His punishment.
Surah al-Maidah (5) : 2
Leadership in the implementation of Islam Hadhari as manhaj and implementing the principle of shura or discussion before deciding on a decision based on the word of God which says33:
and consult with them about the matter,
Surah ?li’Imr?n (3): 159
2.5 Continuous Improvement
Philosophy of continuous improvement include increased reliability and control requirements of accuracy (to do a job right from the beginning each time). Continuous improvement is the most simple improvement activities than the benchmark method and the reengineering of the more complex to implement34.
Continuous improvement process requires management support, feedback and measures to make the review process has been completed, delegated authority to the employee and the metric system that can accurately measure the result of the improvement process35.
Continuous improvement requires the cooperation of all parties to achieve this. According to Fazila Azni Ahmad (2006), this commitment must involve all members of the company, suppliers and the customers. For him the strategies to be taken in order to make improvements is to identify improvement goals, determine the method of implementation, planned training for employees implementing, implementing the planned improvements, evaluate the performance improvement, standardize processes and make the extended remedial action needs to be done36.
The concept of continuous improvement has a remarkable resemblance to istiqamah concept in Islam. Istiqamah means doing something with the regular, continuous and practiced regularly. For example, Allah commands His servants remain in the true foundation of Islam as his word, which means:
“Say:” Verily I am only a man like you, revealed to me that your Lord is the only God, then remain on the right path to it and ask forgiveness of him and Woe to those who worship false gods ”
Surah al-Fushshilat (41) : 6
The above verse about the importance of us as human beings remain in the path of Islam. Only Muslims who can lead us to heaven with God and leave the execution of orders forbidden. Staying on the Path of Allah, man should be in performing their religious duties istiqamah and never abandoned.
Every organization that wants to succeed in improving the quality or the quality of output should be capable of addressing to customer needs. In addition, the method or its implementation must be consistent with Islamic law. This improvement process can also use a systematic process control equipment to assist in decision-making analysis. What is important, the process must be done with istiqamah because it will guarantee to quality improvement37.
2.6 Performance Measurement
Performance measurement process shows organization first set the standards applicable to work performed by employees. These standards can be referred through a job analysis can provide guidance on the tasks that must be done for a position. Sometimes these goals made set through discussions between managers and employees. Then the employee to perform the duties assigned to it in accordance with the desired goals38.
The term “performance evaluation” is not an ambiguous term. It consists of two words “assessment” and “performance”. When associated with an employee, the evaluation means that the employee will be measured based on a performance criteria set by the chief. Performance is the achievement of either employee in his duties under the goal, achieving or exceeding goals39.
As individuals, we must believe on the creation of the Last Day, which today is all of our practices will be reviewed and evaluated by the balance weight (Al-Mizan) Allah the Almighty and the Most Just.God’s Word S.W.T.:
And do not follow what you do not know. Indeed, hearing, sight and hearts, all that will be questioned.
Surah al-Isra ‘(17): 36
Another the word of God in Sura al-Nahl, which means:
And if Allah had wished, he made you a single people (just), but He leads astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. and indeed you will be asked about what has been you do.
Surah al-Nahl (16) : 93
Performance evaluations can also be done through a system of supervision by the people who will evaluate the employee. Islam emphasizes the aspect of public accountability. It can be seen at the time of Umar al-Khattab that when an individual is appointed to hold office, all his property was recorded and documented. If there is an extraordinary increase in financial, involved officers will be called for questioning.
Quality is an important element in organization. In order to achieve success in this world and the hereafter and doing good not only to the organizations, its stakeholders, customers, competitors and the environment and to achieve high level of sustainability, quality concept, quality principles and quality systems got to be conceptualize and operationalize from the true Islamic tasawwur.
Characteristics of quality management was introduced by the quality of teachers is very consistent with what is contained in the values of Islam. This shows that conventional quality management has nurtured some good values to the community in the organization and each of their business. If all organizations in the world this quality management practice it will be born a strong sense of community satisfaction in all the affairs of others and selflessness from purely driven by profit. This in turn will produce well-educated society with Islamic values as the efforts of the prophets over time that have been sent by God to this earth.