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the three phases of  HIV infection in the
human body and

Describe the sign and symptoms with each phase

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Phase I – Entry stage /window period

This is stage in which the virus has entered
into the body and it familiarizes environment. At this stage the virus is also
multiplying and the virus is not detectable.


Phase II- At this stage the virus has
already acquainted to the environment and is able to multiply quickly. The
virus attaches itself with the body enzymes and creates copies of itself
through the enzymes. Depending on different patients it can even last to more
than 5years. The virus is detected by a simple lab test.


Phase III- This is also known as the
Full blown stage. The patients start showing signs and symptoms e.g oral
thrash, chronic diarrhea, prolonged dry cough.

Opportunistic infections also are
recurrent as the patients immunity has weakened. Due to this the patients
become too weak to take care of themselves and therefore need assistance.


how HAART works in the treatment of HIV/AIDS?

HAART-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy is a combination
of antiretroviral medication. It involves taking more than one drug. The main
objective of HAART is to prevent drug resistance. HAART boosts the patient’s
immune system and prevents opportunistic infections.

In the human body there are three (3) main enzymes
that the HIV Virus targets so as to more copies of itself. They include reverse
transcriptase, protease and integrase. Different drugs are used to target
different enzymes and prevent them from functioning. Some of the drugs
administered are:

Nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
(NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)-inhibit
reverse transcription.

Protease inhibitors (PIs)-block the viral protease enzyme
upon budding from the host membrane.

Integrate inhibitors











Describe how stigma and discrimination affect PLWHA

is a mark of shame or a shameful feeling. This is highly associated with
HIV/AIDS patients, because they feel ashamed of being infected whereas HIV is
like any other disease, this is very dangerous especially when discrimination and
stigmatization comes from close friends and family as it may lead to suicidal

patients feel left out in the community and this later leads to loneliness.

patients may end up even being depressed, lack the sense of life and stop
taking ARV’s which leads to frequent opportunistic diseases.

some cases the patients are extremely mistreated by even not sharing utensils,
washrooms and even houses due to the myths that they can infect others when
they share such items. Such treatments stigmatizes HIV patients.

employers will not employ HIV positive patients. This as a result will leave
the  patients unemployed and languish in
poverty and therefore may not afford the ARV’s and to buy the required foods
for their immunity boost.




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