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1             IntroductionFrom the humble beginning of providing wagon-way linkingquarries and mines to the canals, the railways today has evolved into a mode oftransportation that is suited for the medium- to large-scale flows of goods andpeople (Conner, 2015). As the passengersvolume increase due to urbanisation, there is urgent need for urban railways tofind ways be more efficient in offering its commuters safe, reliable andcomfortable journey from one point to another.1.1       ScopeThisassignment discusses ergonomic considerations that influence efficiency ofboarding and alighting train carriages, the application of those considerationsin two cities and their importance for the long-term success of railways.

 1.2       MethodologyThis assignment report is based on researchedinformation from book, journals, materials given by lecturers, library resourcesfrom University of Birmingham and internet sources about works on improvingefficiency of boarding and alighting train carriages.1.3      Assignment StructureChapter 2describes the background to the need to seek ways to improve the efficiency ofthe boarding and alighting train carriages.Chapter 3 ofthis report discusses the ergonomic consideration in design of platform androlling stock that will influence efficiency of the boarding and alightingtrain carriages Chapter 4 ofthis report reviews the application of ergonomic considerations in improvingefficiency of the boarding and alighting train carriages Singapore and well asBeijing. Chapter 5 ofthis report will explain how and why improving efficiency of boarding andalighting train carriages through ergonomic considerations is important for thelong-term success of railways. Chapter 6 ofthis report covers the findings and recommendations of this report.2             BackgroundThe journey of railway commuter include timetaken for train to travel at operating speed form one station to next station,the time taken for a train running into a station, stop to open doors, allowingthe ingress and egress of the passengers (passenger dwell time), close doorsand running out towards the next station.

Barring any faults, the only timesubdivision that is variable is passenger dwell time. It peaks during rushhours and could lead to extended train dwell time. The extended train dwelltime will reduce system capacity leading to less train services, delays,eventually affecting revenue and poor service rendered as perceived bypassengers. Figure 1 shows a pictorial representation of total time compositionwith subdivisions a type train travel from station A, pulls into station B toalight, pick up, the passengers and depart for the next station (Coxon, 2015). Figure 1 Composition of total time with subdivisions as a train departs, pulls intoa station to alight and pick up the passengers, and depart for the next station(Source: Coxon, 2015). The world population has grown from about 1billion in the 19th century to about 6 billion today. (United Nations, 2017).

As thehuman population continues to grow, the pace of urbanisation pace quicken. Theproportion of people living in an urban area grew from two out of ten in the1900 to five out of ten in 2010 (ARUP, 2014). Rapidurbanisation brings about grown of passenger volume which lead to greater needfor railway as the preferred mode of transportation (Urbanisation: Driving Rail Investmen, 2016).  As far back as forty-two years ago, Kraft had already highlightedhuman and other systems as two of the main factors affecting the passengerdwell time: (Kraft, 1975).Recent studies had shed some lights on this renewed subject of interests as thedemand on capacity and efficiency of railways arose. Puongpointed out that it makes sense to review factors that can improve dwell time asit is the key to system performance, service reliability and quality of heavilyloaded railways with more or less short but consistent headways and runningtimes between stations (Puong,2000). According to Douglas Economics, train design and stationdesign are two of the main factors affecting dwell time (Douglas Economics, 2012). Intuitively, there is a close relationship between human,train carriages and station platform that railways designers could explore toimprove the efficiency of the boarding and alighting train carriages throughergonomics considerations.

  3                  Ergonomic Considerations that InfluenceEfficiency of Boarding and Alighting Train Carriages  4              Case StudiesA research wasconducted on the application of ergonomic considerations in improving theefficiency of boarding and alighting train carriages in Singapore and Beijing. Someassignments can benefit from case studies where you want to give detailedexamples of good or bad practice.  Casestudies normally include the following elements:Why is itrelevant?What happenedin this case study?What lessonsare appropriate for this assignment?However, thereis no absolute requirement to have case studies in your assignment.   5             Future of RailwaysWhy is improving efficiency ofboarding and alighting train carriages through ergonomic considerationsimportant for the long-term success of railways.  Overall, anassignment should contain a limited number of chapters (somewhere between 5 and9).  But make sure that the title you usefor each chapter gives the reader a good idea of what it contains.

 6             ConclusionsLike the Executive Summary,the Conclusions section is another important part of any assignment, and youneed to make sure it is to a high standard. Here, you need to provide a brief summary of your work and link it to theproblem under investigation, then examine, interpret, and qualify the results /findings and emphasize any theoretical or practical consequences of theresults.  It is recommendedthat you divide your conclusions into two sections:The first section titled “Findings” should beused to provide a factual summary of what you have found during your research;The second section titled “Recommendations”should be more subjective and personal since you will be suggesting a wayforward.

It is sometimeshelpful to also include a review of the approach you have taken to theassignment to provide a critique of what you have done.  It can also be appropriate to discuss whatareas or further work or research might be useful, or how the work / researchyou have done could be developed further.Bear in mind thatthe Conclusions section needs to be a strong section as it will bethe final impression that you leave the reader with. WordCountThere are ???words between Introductions and Conclusions.To check the number of words in the assignment, simplyselect all of the qualifying text (i.e. from the start of Introduction to theend of Conclusions), and the status bar at the bottom left of the screen willshow something like “2015/2765”.  This meansthat you have highlighted 2015 words out of a total of 2765.

  So your word count in this case would be2015.  7             List of ReferencesARUP. (2014). Future of Rails 2050. London:ARUP.Conner, P.

H. (2015). Managing Station Stops. In P. H.Conner, Designing and Managing Urban Railway (pp. 87-97). London:University of Birmingham, UK (2015).

Coxon, S. C. (2015). Investigating commuter trainboarding and alighting dispersal by contemporary gent based modellingtechniques. Australasian Transport Research Forum. Sydney: MoneshUniversity.Douglas Economics. (2012).

Modelling train andpassenger capacity. Sydney: Douglas Economics.Kraft, W.

(1975). An analysis of the passenger vehicleinterface of street transit systems with applications to design optimization,PhD Dissertation,. Newark: New Jersey Inst. of Technology.Puong, A. (2000).

Dwell time model and analysis forthe MBTA red line, . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology.Rail Technology Magazine. (2016, July 4). Urbanisation:Driving Rail Investmen.

Retrieved from Rail Technology Magazine:http://www.railtechnologymagazine.com/Comment/urbanisation-driving-rail-investmentUnited Nations. (2017, June 21). World PopulationProspects: The 2017. Retrieved from Department of Economics and ScocialAffairs: http://www.populationmatters.org/the_issue/overview/facts 

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