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From the humble beginning of providing wagon-way linking
quarries and mines to the canals, the railways today has evolved into a mode of
transportation that is suited for the medium- to large-scale flows of goods and
people (Conner, 2015). As the passengers
volume increase due to urbanisation, there is urgent need for urban railways to
find ways be more efficient in offering its commuters safe, reliable and
comfortable journey from one point to another.

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1.1       Scope

assignment discusses ergonomic considerations that influence efficiency of
boarding and alighting train carriages, the application of those considerations
in two cities and their importance for the long-term success of railways.  

1.2       Methodology

This assignment report is based on researched
information from book, journals, materials given by lecturers, library resources
from University of Birmingham and internet sources about works on improving
efficiency of boarding and alighting train carriages.

Assignment Structure

Chapter 2
describes the background to the need to seek ways to improve the efficiency of
the boarding and alighting train carriages.

Chapter 3 of
this report discusses the ergonomic consideration in design of platform and
rolling stock that will influence efficiency of the boarding and alighting
train carriages

Chapter 4 of
this report reviews the application of ergonomic considerations in improving
efficiency of the boarding and alighting train carriages Singapore and well as

Chapter 5 of
this report will explain how and why improving efficiency of boarding and
alighting train carriages through ergonomic considerations is important for the
long-term success of railways.

Chapter 6 of
this report covers the findings and recommendations of this report.


The journey of railway commuter include time
taken for train to travel at operating speed form one station to next station,
the time taken for a train running into a station, stop to open doors, allowing
the ingress and egress of the passengers (passenger dwell time), close doors
and running out towards the next station. Barring any faults, the only time
subdivision that is variable is passenger dwell time. It peaks during rush
hours and could lead to extended train dwell time. The extended train dwell
time will reduce system capacity leading to less train services, delays,
eventually affecting revenue and poor service rendered as perceived by
passengers. Figure 1 shows a pictorial representation of total time composition
with subdivisions a type train travel from station A, pulls into station B to
alight, pick up, the passengers and depart for the next station (Coxon, 2015).

Figure 1 Composition of total time with subdivisions as a train departs, pulls into
a station to alight and pick up the passengers, and depart for the next station
(Source: Coxon, 2015).


The world population has grown from about 1
billion in the 19th century to about 6 billion today. (United Nations, 2017). As the
human population continues to grow, the pace of urbanisation pace quicken. The
proportion of people living in an urban area grew from two out of ten in the
1900 to five out of ten in 2010 (ARUP, 2014). Rapid
urbanisation brings about grown of passenger volume which lead to greater need
for railway as the preferred mode of transportation (Urbanisation: Driving Rail Investmen, 2016).



As far back as forty-two years ago, Kraft had already highlighted
human and other systems as two of the main factors affecting the passenger
dwell time: (Kraft, 1975).
Recent studies had shed some lights on this renewed subject of interests as the
demand on capacity and efficiency of railways arose. Puong
pointed out that it makes sense to review factors that can improve dwell time as
it is the key to system performance, service reliability and quality of heavily
loaded railways with more or less short but consistent headways and running
times between stations (Puong,
2000). According to Douglas Economics, train design and station
design are two of the main factors affecting dwell time (Douglas Economics, 2012). Intuitively, there is a close relationship between human,
train carriages and station platform that railways designers could explore to
improve the efficiency of the boarding and alighting train carriages through
ergonomics considerations.



Ergonomic Considerations that Influence
Efficiency of Boarding and Alighting Train Carriages



 Case Studies

A research was
conducted on the application of ergonomic considerations in improving the
efficiency of boarding and alighting train carriages in Singapore and Beijing.


assignments can benefit from case studies where you want to give detailed
examples of good or bad practice.  Case
studies normally include the following elements:

Why is it
relevant?What happened
in this case study?What lessons
are appropriate for this assignment?

However, there
is no absolute requirement to have case studies in your assignment.



Future of Railways

Why is improving efficiency of
boarding and alighting train carriages through ergonomic considerations
important for the long-term success of railways.



Overall, an
assignment should contain a limited number of chapters (somewhere between 5 and
9).  But make sure that the title you use
for each chapter gives the reader a good idea of what it contains.



Like the Executive Summary,
the Conclusions section is another important part of any assignment, and you
need to make sure it is to a high standard. 
Here, you need to provide a brief summary of your work and link it to the
problem under investigation, then examine, interpret, and qualify the results /
findings and emphasize any theoretical or practical consequences of the

It is recommended
that you divide your conclusions into two sections:

The first section titled “Findings” should be
used to provide a factual summary of what you have found during your research;The second section titled “Recommendations”
should be more subjective and personal since you will be suggesting a way

It is sometimes
helpful to also include a review of the approach you have taken to the
assignment to provide a critique of what you have done.  It can also be appropriate to discuss what
areas or further work or research might be useful, or how the work / research
you have done could be developed further.

Bear in mind that
the Conclusions section needs to be a strong section as it will be
the final impression that you leave the reader with.


There are ???
words between Introductions and Conclusions.

To check the number of words in the assignment, simply
select all of the qualifying text (i.e. from the start of Introduction to the
end of Conclusions), and the status bar at the bottom left of the screen will
show something like “2015/2765”.  This means
that you have highlighted 2015 words out of a total of 2765.  So your word count in this case would be


List of References

ARUP. (2014). Future of Rails 2050. London:

Conner, P. H. (2015). Managing Station Stops. In P. H.
Conner, Designing and Managing Urban Railway (pp. 87-97). London:
University of Birmingham, UK (2015).

Coxon, S. C. (2015). Investigating commuter train
boarding and alighting dispersal by contemporary gent based modelling
techniques. Australasian Transport Research Forum. Sydney: Monesh

Douglas Economics. (2012). Modelling train and
passenger capacity. Sydney: Douglas Economics.

Kraft, W. (1975). An analysis of the passenger vehicle
interface of street transit systems with applications to design optimization,
PhD Dissertation,. Newark: New Jersey Inst. of Technology.

Puong, A. (2000). Dwell time model and analysis for
the MBTA red line, . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of

Rail Technology Magazine. (2016, July 4). Urbanisation:
Driving Rail Investmen. Retrieved from Rail Technology Magazine:

United Nations. (2017, June 21). World Population
Prospects: The 2017. Retrieved from Department of Economics and Scocial


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