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1.      The American bureaucratic system is unique in its structure and execution. In the American bureaucracy political authority is distributed and shared throughout several institutions. Are bureaucracy is not one large agency but several smaller ones acting as a collective. Most of these agencies act at the state and local level rather than the federal like the post office or offices of education. The federal bureaucracy is also constantly increasing in size with every president.2.   The civil service system was set up to move away from the spoils and move to a more merit based system. This system was set in place to employ qualified individuals rather than reward people for political patronage. Most employees of the bureaucracy belong to the competitive service meeting there in government offices where you are appointed based on ability assessed by the civil service exam. Along with the agency’s point of view personal attributes play a factor in how bureaucrats use their power. An individual social class their personal political beliefs and their level of education shapes their opinions and influences how they work creating bias and unequal representation in the system.3.      It is said that bureaucrats sabotage their bosses because of the fact that it is so hard to fire someone within the bureaucracy (This is an opinion most usually expressed by conservative president and conservative cabinet members because civil servants tend to share liberal viewpoints) so attacking someone in a higher power position is most likely to cause change. However, the strong job security that comes with a bureaucratic system gives little to no motivation for an employee to actually put another’s position in jeopardy. (422) A strong sense of loyalty develops to a person’s superior in a bureaucracy when they are managed cooperatively. 4.       Congress exercises oversight on the federal bureaucracy by giving them several constraints. But typical government bureau is not allowed to hire new employees fire their employees or sell anything without going through an extensive process put in place by congress. Several steps have been taken to keep the bureaucracy and check. The administrative procedure act of 1946 made it so that before any new rule or policy could be adopted the agency had to give notice and hold hearings often. The 1966 freedom of information act made it so citizens can inspect any and all records with the exception of those containing military, intelligence, or trade secrets. The national environmental policy act of 1969 said that before undergoing any major action affecting the environment an agency had to issue an environmental impact statement. The 1974 privacy act made it so government files about individuals print to see Social Security and tax records parentheses have to be kept confidential. And notably the open meeting law of 1976 made it so all parts of every Agency meeting had to be open to the public. Along with all these hoops Congress has made it so any Job doesn’t go to one single agency multiple agencies have to work together. These constraints cause the bureaucracy to act very slowly and checks its power. (424-425)5.      The five pathologies holding back the American bureaucracy are: red tape, conflict, duplication, imperialism. Red tape is complex rules with in the three are Acre see as well as procedures that have to be followed to get something done, they are often conflicting and involve a lot of paperwork to get simple actions done. Multiple agencies have to work together which creates conflict and friction when they do not agree or cannot come to a resolution. Similar to this went to agencies have to perform similar task it is hard to get work done. Agencies are always growing which comes at a cost to their program. And spending more than is necessary or on unnecessary cost creates issues across the system.6.    Reforming the bureaucracy is an expensive and difficult process. There have been 11 a temps in just the 21st-century to reform the bureaucracy, notably in 1993 the national performance review designed a plan to “reinvent the government.” (432) reform hardly ever happens and is always difficult to accomplish. The majority of the rules and red tape or set in place because of the struggle between Congress and the president or agencies trying to avoid alienating certain voters who are more influential. Also, periods of divided government make it harder to implement new policy.

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