1.INTRODUCTION In recent years there is advancement in thecomputer performance and technologies in wireless communications. Wireless networks need ad hocnetworks in which mobile nodes can communicate over links. In MANETs, networksurvivability is must because the battery capacity of the nodes get exhausted.Thus to prolong the network lifetime the routing protocol is required toenhance the energy of the node.
Multipath routing protocols maintain routes toflood the packets i.e., route request is sent by the source to get informationregarding the paths. MANETs can be categorized into three generations: first,second and third generations. In 1970’s the ad hoc network first generation arecalled Packet Radio Network (PRNET). In early 1980’s Survivable Adaptive RadioNetwork (SURAN)is evolved from PRNET.
The function group of MANETs made therouting protocols standardized and implemented the devices like PDA’S,palmtops, notebooks. Some standards like Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11(WLAN’S) aredeveloped to maintain the MANETs. For several years from 1970’s to 1990’s thereare changes in the generations of MANET i.e., finally some standards are madeto maintain the MANET. Energy efficiency is to be regarded as a factor inMANET.
Mainly the packets are transmitted based on the: · Distanceof the route· ResidualEnergy of the node. Thus the route that isefficient and possible in transmitting packets can be identified .Route Requestis send by the source to find the route that is efficient.
All the routes that are possible can be find .The information about the nodesenergy level and the links are sent through the Route Reply. Whenever the link breaksthe Route Error is send. When this happens the source sends the packets throughthe route to the destination without any delay. This can be done with themultipath routing protocol which are preferred to the single path routingprotocol. In single path routing once the link breaks the packets cannot betransmitted.
Whereas in multipath routing other routes can be preferred to sendthe data packets. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is the algorithm from whichthe fitness function is derived. Fitness Function is mainly used to find theoptimal path.The optimum route is nothing but the route with:· Lessdistance and· Consumesless energy. The optimal path minimizes theenergy consumption and maximizes the network lifetime. Thus the proposedFF-AOMDV performance in maximizing the network lifetime is possible compared tothe AOMDV.
1.1 Existing system: The research proposed highlightsthe problem of energy consumption in MANET by applying the Fitness Functiontechnique to optimize the energy consumption in Ad Hoc on Demand MultipathDistance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol. The proposed protocol is called AdHoc on Demand Multipath Distance Vector with the Fitness Function(FF-AOMDV).The fitness function is used to find the optimal path from thesource to the destination to reduce the energy consumption in multipathrouting. 1.2 AOMDV Routing protocol: An on-demand routing protocol,AOMDV has its roots in the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), a popularsingle-path routing protocol. AOMDV offers two key services: route discoveryand route maintenance.
Compared with AODV, AOMDV’s additional overhead is extraRERRs and RREPs intended for multipath maintenance and discovery, along with extrafields to route control packets . Route discovery and route maintenance involvefinding multiple routes from a source to a destination node. AOMDV utilizesthree control packets: the route request (RREQ); the route reply (RREP); andthe route error (RERR).
A new multipath routing protocol called the FF-AOMDVrouting protocol is proposed which is a combination of Fitness Function and theAOMDV’s protocol. The route, which consumes less energy could possibly be (a)the route that has the shortest distance; (b) the route with the highest levelof energy, or (c) both