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1. What isintellectual disability? 1. Intellectual disability is a disability characterized bysignificant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptivebehaviour, which covers many everyday social and practical skills.

The disabilityoriginates before the age of 18.(American Association of Intellectual and DevelopmentalDisabilities)It is limitation in doing daily task, learning andunderstanding .I.Q level of below 70. 2. Identify the causeand effect of intellectual disability.

STAGE THE DISABILITY OCCURS CAUSES EFFECTS Before birth Genetic Condition Fragile X syndrome Learning disorder, narrow face, and large head, afraid, aggressive.   Alcohol or drug abuse Foetal alcohol syndrome Body malformation, problem with behaviour, learning, hyperactive, speech and language delay.   During birth or immediately following birth Cord coil leading to hypoxia Cerebral palsy, spastic movements, low or sometime no muscle control, missing developmental milestones   Extremely premature delivery Problem or delay in physical development, learning, communicating with others, getting along with others, taking self-care. In childhood Severe head injury due to car accident Abnormalities in cognition, language, memory, attention, abstract thinking, judgement and unable to solve problems.   Environment toxins (lead poising) Convolutions, reduced attention, reduced educational attainment.                                                                     3. Two conditionsoften associated with intellectual disability. Condition one Spina bifida What causes it Genetic, nutrition, obesity, environmental factors.

When does it usually occur Before birth (within first four weeks of pregnancy) What are two characteristics of this 1. Varying degree of paralysis, pressure sores and loss of sensation of lower limb. 2. Bed wetting and leaking of urine.   2.

Condition two Prader willi syndrome What causes it Genetic (chromosomal rearrangement; inactive gene on parental chromosome 15) When does it usually occur Before birth What are two characteristic of this? 1. Distinct facial feature, poor muscle tone, compulsive behaviour, self-harm or aggressive. 2.

Delayed development, learning disability and delayed puberty.

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