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1. What is
intellectual disability?

1. Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by
significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive
behaviour, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. The disability
originates before the age of 18.

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(American Association of Intellectual and Developmental

It is limitation in doing daily task, learning and
understanding .I.Q level of below 70.


2. Identify the cause
and effect of intellectual disability.




Before birth

Genetic Condition

Fragile X syndrome
Learning disorder, narrow face, and large head, afraid, aggressive.


Alcohol or drug abuse

Foetal alcohol syndrome
Body malformation, problem with behaviour, learning, hyperactive,
speech and language delay.

During birth or immediately following birth

Cord coil leading to hypoxia

Cerebral palsy, spastic movements, low or sometime no muscle control,
missing developmental milestones


Extremely premature delivery

Problem or delay in physical development, learning, communicating
with others, getting along with others, taking self-care.

In childhood

Severe head injury due to car accident

Abnormalities in cognition, language, memory, attention, abstract
thinking, judgement and unable to solve problems.


Environment toxins (lead poising)

Convolutions, reduced attention, reduced educational attainment.






3. Two conditions
often associated with intellectual disability.

Condition one

Spina bifida

What causes it

Genetic, nutrition, obesity, environmental factors.

When does it usually occur

Before birth (within first four weeks of pregnancy)

What are two characteristics
of this

1. Varying degree of paralysis, pressure sores and loss of sensation
of lower limb.
2. Bed wetting and leaking of urine.




Condition two

Prader willi syndrome

What causes it

Genetic (chromosomal rearrangement; inactive gene on parental
chromosome 15)

When does it usually occur

Before birth

What are two characteristic of

1. Distinct facial feature, poor muscle tone, compulsive behaviour, self-harm
or aggressive.
2. Delayed development, learning disability and delayed puberty.

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