this essay I will be considering four main topics with the psychology which are
memory, context, intelligence, personality. All these areas are important when
looking at psychology in the work place. The two areas that I will be focusing
on are intelligence and personality, I have chosen to look further into these
as they can have great effect on the way that people work and the type of jobs
that the choose and will work well in. For each of these areas I will be
looking at the way that they are defined and key ways that they can affect
behaviours within the work place.
2. Theoretical background
this section I will be focusing in on the theoretical background of both
Intelligence and Personality in order to understand these better.
2.1.1. What is Intelligence
Sternberg (2004.p.72) states that
intelligences is “the capacity to learn from experience and adaptation to one’s
environment” however with this definition there are some important implications
which are that people need to pay attention the cultural differences. It is
important for people to understand how to adapt successfully in one environment
to another. There are two types of
cultures that can be distinguish between which are, individualistic cultures
(e.g. United Kingdom and United States of America) which focus more on individuals
accepting responsibility for their own behaviour (Eysenck, 2016), and
collectivistic cultures which emphasise on an entire group rather than an
individual (e.g. Asian and African cultures) (Eysenck, 2016).
Within psychology there is a large controversy
on how intelligence is defined. Some argue that intelligence can be affected by
individual differences which could be of important in understanding why
behaviours vary so much. In contrast others argue that there is a valueless
concept behind intelligence. (Eysenck, 2016). H.J. Eysenck (1981) believe that
heredity is almost entirely the cause of individual differences whereas Kamin
(1981) claim that environmental factors are the only thing that matters.
2.1.2. Theorise of intelligence
There are a few different
theorise of intelligence the first factor that was put forward was by the
British psychologist Charles Spearman (1923) which is the two-factor theory which
is based on based on one general factor ‘G’ and various test specific factors ‘S’.
spearman (1923) argued that there is a general factor as all of the test contained
within an intelligence test battery correlate positively with each other although
these correlations are fairly low, so it can to be accounted for all the data
within the term of the general factor.