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1.    Pennerand Saperstein’s ontological orientation to race is constructionist. It isbecause those racial perceptions are fluid. According to the article, racialperceptions are related to the social position.

For instance, incarceration isthe key to understand classification of whites and non-whites. Out of those whohave been classified “white” last year, 96% with no signs of incarceration arestill classified as white again. However, 6% of those following people cannotbe seen as whites because they have been incarcerated. Unlike, classificationof “blacks” can be seen as lenient. It doesn’t matter if one is poor or hascommitted a crime.2.    Thereare two ways that Penner and Saperstein investigate and examine the concept ofrace. The first is the racial classification by interviewers (others) , which can be explained as howindividuals’ races are classified by the others.

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The second is the racialself-identification that can be explained as how individuals identify their ownraces. 3.    Thekey variables in this study are racial classification such as black and whiteand elements of social status of the individual such as their income, educationlevel, employment and marital history. This study examined how racialclassification is related to social status of individual.

People identified as white last year may be identified as white againwhether unemployed, incarcerated, or impoverished. If any of those three aremet, they are less likely to be seen as white in the current year. Blacksare identified same regardless of their states. In this study, therefore, therace (perception) can be independent variable while social status can bedependent variable. 4.

    I feel that this study is valid withrespect to ecological validity as they are deeply related to our real life andinternal validity as they use the strong causal relationship between variables.For the example of ecological validity, blacks have stereotype of being pooraccording to article. For the internal validity, this study has the strongrelationship between the race perception and the social position.   

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