Tourism in EcuadorNowadays tourism is a major factor in the world economy, playing a growing role in economic life in many countries, such as in Ecuador. Tourism is a part of everyday life and a global social phenomenon. The role of tourism is expanding with the advancement of science and technology and the growth of leisure time. Its beneficial effect is shared by all segments of society.Tourism is linked to all phenomena of the world, which are the basic conditions of tourism and can be influenced by positive or negative impacts. All tools need to be used to avoid negative effects and then tourism could be a positive effect for the principle of sustainability. Everything can contribute effectively, which not only help orientate itself in the complex system of tourism and its environs but also identify with the idea of sustainable tourism.
Although Ecuador is the smallest country in the Andean region, this is one of the most visited tourist destinations in South America. It might be mainly due to the culture, remained intact colonial-era architectural relics, indescribably beautiful volcanoes and dense ancient forests. Equator is also very famous, from which it takes its name. Quito is the fabulous capital, the Amazon forests are thrilling, the volcanoes still in operation are unique and the tropical beaches are really enjoyable. The Galapagos Islands lie about 1000 kilometres of Ecuador and it has one of the world’s most beautiful natural treasures.
Its unique flora and fauna fascinate scientists and tourists as well.1.2. International inbound tourists and tourism receiptsThere are two types of tourism: international and domestic.”International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited.”1 “International tourism receipts are defined (by WTO) as expenditure of international inbound visitors including their payments to national carriers for international transport. They also include any other payments or payments afterwards made for goods and services received in the destination country.”2 For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items.
2.1. Number of arrivals and international tourism receipts increase in EcuadorThere are many reasons why the number of arrivals and international tourism receipts are increasing.In Ecuador international tourism is on the rise from the first half of the 21st century.
The number of arrivals was 627,000 in 2000 and 1,543,000 in 2015, which means almost two and a half times more tourists2.2. Questions about number of tourists and economic utility in EcuadorMy questions are:Why the number of tourists is increasing in Ecuador?Does tourism generate a good economic utility in Ecuador?Tourism in Ecuador has grown a lot thanks to the tourist campaign “Ecuador ama la vida”, which means “Ecuador loves life”, and today is the fourth most visited country in South America. Lonely Planet or World Travel gave international recommendations that qualified Ecuador as the best green destination worldwide in 2012.
It has been a great impulse that invites people to visit this place. It is a country that has known how to preserve its history and culture, for which it has received five nominations for the Cultural Patrimony of Humanity and two for Natural Heritage of Humanity.Another important aspect is that the government of Ecuador has done a huge investment in international marketing. The aim was that this country be known and recognized as a high quality destination. This marketing plan was developed to attract the upper class and in this way on each service a good utility can be generated. They sell the services more expensive for foreigners as for residents.
It does not attract more tourists but influence the economic utility. Last but not least Ecuador has created a general tax of 2%, which is paid by tourists who spend at least one night in an accommodation. This money serves to improve and develop new public attractions to generate a continuous innovation.
As a consequence the international tourist arrivals increase.63.1. Methodology of analysis of the questionsStatistics has a significant role in knowing the phenomena of tourism. Statistical activity is a process that begins with the formulation of the objective and the precise definition of the elements of the phenomenon to be observed, followed by observation (data collection), data processing and analysis by different methods. Clarification of concepts is a basic requirement not only for statistical work, but also for understanding the phenomena, contexts and interpretations described by statistics. The whole conceptual and pointing system is called meta-database.
Along with the growing role of tourism in the modern economy, the attention of professionals, decision-makers and society as a whole to the effects of the sector is devoted more and more. These effects may be positive and negative (and, of course, neutral), whether we are looking at the economy or the society or the environment.As there is a mass phenomenon of tourism its socio-cultural, economic and environmental-ecological impacts become increasingly apparent. Therefore there is a high demand for measuring negative impacts, which assist tourism sector as much as for negative impact which need to be eliminated. In this analysis, it is indispensable to identify indicators that measure the real effects of tourism.
I am focusing for the number of arrivals and international tourism’s receipts (current US$) in Ecuador. Gap-filled total method is used. These data are obtained annually from different sources, for example border surveys, administrative records (traffic counts, immigration and other possible types of controls) or a mix of them.
“If data are obtained from accommodation surveys, the number of guests is used as estimate of arrival figures; consequently, in this case, breakdowns by regions, main purpose of the trip, modes of transport used or forms of organization of the trip are based on complementary visitor surveys.”7In the tourism sector the socio-cultural, political, economic, natural and technological factors fundamentally determine the tourism potential of a given place (world region, country, region, settlement) and its development potential. Favourable environmental factors stimulate tourism and increase the intensity of tourism.The economic environment is the most important external factor for the function of tourism market. It influences the size, quality and composition of tourism demand and supply. It has an impact on the pace of tourism development.The socio-cultural environment includes the following segments: social order, the type of society, population characteristics, the attitude of the government (central and local government) to tourism and cultural conditions (built heritage, traditions, etc.
).The constituents of the natural environment are the basis for the development of tourist attractions. The geographic environment orientates the volume, location and nature of tourism developments, and plays a significant role in the attractions of the tourist offer, and this environmental factor is also presented with this important supply element.4.2.
IndicatorsOutput indicators mostly measure physical or financial units (length of road constructed in kilometres, number of establishments, number of companies receiving financial support, number of employees involved in training, etc.).The result indicators show the direct and immediate effects generated by a program. These may also be physical (increasing number of visitors to a tourist destination, increasing number of successful graduates, increasing number of guest nights, etc.) or financial nature (private sector-induced investments, reduction of hotel operating costs, etc.).
Impact indicators indicate the consequences of the program in addition to direct impacts with regard to beneficial owners. Some impacts on the given activity (special effects), but there are longer-term impacts that affect the wider population (global impacts).4.3. The positive and negative effects of economic, social and environmental impacts of EcuadorIt can be seen from the table that in Ecuador the socio-cultural tourism and to a lesser extent the economic effects of tourism are the ones that have received the most attention from experts and society, but it is also expected that the environmental impact of tourism will become more and more important to the idea of sustainable development.
These are essential for the increasing number of tourism.In order to meet the needs of tourism we can see that a different set of services are available on the other side of the market. Ecuador supplies attractiveness, good transport system, many stunning tourism services, easy access to tourist information, security and welcoming hospitalityOffers to travel to Ecuador have increased in recent years and this amazing country can be visited at any time of the year. There is a very well-established domestic air network in the country, which allows us to travel quickly and cheaply to major cities and tourist attractions. Long distance bus service works well.With respect to cultural factors the environmental impact is similar to both the sending and receiving areas.
The cultural conditions of the source area, the cultural attitudes, knowledge and level of education of the tourists have a significant influence on the nature of the tourism product sought. Also the culture of their behaviour affects the tourist bearing capacity of the visited area. Cultural heritage, cultural history traditions, art history, folk art memories and values in Ecuador are an attractive attraction in the supply side of the tourism market.
Data can show us that the number of tourists is increasing, which means they work successfully.The proper relationship, recognition and fulfilment of the role of public authorities (central government, regional, county and municipal governments) for tourism is an indispensable prerequisite for the development of tourism. The government of Ecuador also try to focus for and invest in tourism because they have realized that it generates good economic utility. Tourism provides job for many people.
In the supply of tourists the culture of expertise and hospitality is a key competitive factor, including self-confident language proficiency. Raising the standard of accommodation and hospitality services is a fundamental requirement for competitiveness in Ecuador and there is a strong technical dependence in this area. The need for efficient operation of service companies is also coupled with the use of more modern and efficient new technologies (e.g.: solar, geo, bioenergy).