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1.0 introduction

This is an
introductory Chapter, which has incorporated the background to the Problem, the
Statement of the Problem, Research Objectives and Research Questions. This
Chapter also includes the significance and scope of the study, limitation,
delimitation ….

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1.1 Background
to the Problem

Water is
indispensible for sustainable development – at the center of political,
economic, social, and environment. It has a vital role to achieving poverty
reduction including growth, public health, food security, manage the
environment, and create jobs opportunity. Progress in each of the three
dimensions of sustainable development; social, economic and environmental ?it
is bound by water resources, and the way these resources are managed to provide
services and benefits (WWAP 2015).

acknowledgment by the UN General Assembly, in 2010, of water and sanitation as
a human right, and MDG ultimate goal of providing for everyone with access to
these vital services. The report brings welcome news, which 2.3 billion people
are gaining access to an improved drinking water source and 1.9 billion to an
enhanced sanitation facility. However more than 748 million people do not use an improved
source of drinking water and 2.5 billion do not use an improved sanitation
facility. Similarly,

Potable water
coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa remains below 60 percent of the population (WHO
and UNICEF, 2014).

Ethiopia is one
of the nation’s endowments by water resource on the world having 12 river
basins, about 14 major lakes; it is to be expected 40million cubic
water. The annual surface water runoff is estimated to be 122 billion m3. Besides, the country has an estimated 2.6 billion m3 of
usable ground water. However, Ethiopia has facing those challenges like the
dynamics of population growth, low potable water access and sanitation, low
productivity, structural bottlenecks, dependence on unreliable

rainfall and the
country and historically low investment in water infrastructure (Mr. Abiy Girma
(MOWE) (2013).

Access potable
water supplies and sanitation services in Ethiopia are among the lowest in
Sub-Saharan Africa. Access for urban areas was 91.5 %(with 0.5km), while the
access to rural is about 68.5%1 (within 1.5 km) in the year 2010. On the other hand (ADF) (2005) report shows that 33% of rural water services in Ethiopia are
non-functional. The average safe water coverage in ANRS is xx% which is xx% and xx%
in urban and rural areas respectively. Water Aid Ethiopia in ANRS (2012) report
stated that

non Functional
rat is a  very critical problem. It is
only 44% of the schemes are functional whereas the remaining 56% is either
completely non-functional (13%) or functional with disrepair (43%) under the
current management arrangement.

In debark woreda
north Gondar zone, there are 32 on spot springs; two hands dug wells and one
water supply system by gravity called Fessa water supply which makes up the
water supply of the Woreda 55.9 % of the total population.

The first
comprehensive declaration
which addressed the requirement for public participation in
decision-making in water management was made in (1992), The
Dublin International Conference on Water and the Environment
established guide principles for managing potable water resources with
exclusively concerned with public participation. The basic principle states
that “water development and management should be based on a
participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy makers
at all levels”,

Women play a
central role in the provision, management and safeguarding water.

Among Several
challenges of sustainability of potable water supply is Poor management system,
low community participation, non-functionality scheme (Harvery, 2008).
Furthermore, potable water supplies from improved sources does not forever
guaranty that the water is secure. The existing operation and maintenance
practices are reactive and are exercised post project the system
interrupts and stops providing services, and the system may be maintained and operation
is depending on the availability

of materials,
spare parts, and capacity of the operators and care takers.

Social and
economic changes are transforming all the perspectives of active participation
of communities. But the challenges that it is how the communities deal
with these changes depends not the service delivery the maintenance of
infrastructure and economic development, it also involve new ways, working
cooperatively, improving networks, mobilizing existing skills, and putting
innovative ideas into action. The participation outcomes are not only jobs
opportunity, income and infrastructure but

also strong
functioning communities, better able to manage change for sustainable life
improvement (UNICEF, 1992).

Experiences in
the region of the ANRS particularly north Gondar zone proved that involving the
beneficiaries have not responsible for the water resources sustainable, to
overcame the challenge will create sense of ownership, legitimacy and protection of infrastructure, involving the community in protecting and
safeguarding of the water sources is one of the alternative ways of managing
the water resources in rural areas. Hence, the motivation of the present study
is to understand

how the
involvement of people in decision concerning the environment where they live
contributes to sustainability of community based management of water supply

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