1.0 introductionThis is anintroductory Chapter, which has incorporated the background to the Problem, theStatement of the Problem, Research Objectives and Research Questions. ThisChapter also includes the significance and scope of the study, limitation,delimitation ….
1.1 Backgroundto the ProblemWater isindispensible for sustainable development – at the center of political,economic, social, and environment. It has a vital role to achieving povertyreduction including growth, public health, food security, manage theenvironment, and create jobs opportunity. Progress in each of the threedimensions of sustainable development; social, economic and environmental ?itis bound by water resources, and the way these resources are managed to provideservices and benefits (WWAP 2015).Theacknowledgment by the UN General Assembly, in 2010, of water and sanitation asa human right, and MDG ultimate goal of providing for everyone with access tothese vital services. The report brings welcome news, which 2.3 billion peopleare gaining access to an improved drinking water source and 1.
9 billion to anenhanced sanitation facility. However more than 748 million people do not use an improvedsource of drinking water and 2.5 billion do not use an improved sanitationfacility. Similarly,Potable watercoverage in Sub-Saharan Africa remains below 60 percent of the population (WHOand UNICEF, 2014).Ethiopia is oneof the nation’s endowments by water resource on the world having 12 riverbasins, about 14 major lakes; it is to be expected 40million cubicwater. The annual surface water runoff is estimated to be 122 billion m3. Besides, the country has an estimated 2.6 billion m3 ofusable ground water.
However, Ethiopia has facing those challenges like thedynamics of population growth, low potable water access and sanitation, lowproductivity, structural bottlenecks, dependence on unreliablerainfall and thecountry and historically low investment in water infrastructure (Mr. Abiy Girma(MOWE) (2013).Access potablewater supplies and sanitation services in Ethiopia are among the lowest inSub-Saharan Africa. Access for urban areas was 91.5 %(with 0.
5km), while theaccess to rural is about 68.5%1 (within 1.5 km) in the year 2010. On the other hand (ADF) (2005) report shows that 33% of rural water services in Ethiopia arenon-functional.
The average safe water coverage in ANRS is xx% which is xx% and xx%in urban and rural areas respectively. Water Aid Ethiopia in ANRS (2012) reportstated thatnon Functionalrat is a very critical problem. It isonly 44% of the schemes are functional whereas the remaining 56% is eithercompletely non-functional (13%) or functional with disrepair (43%) under thecurrent management arrangement.In debark woredanorth Gondar zone, there are 32 on spot springs; two hands dug wells and onewater supply system by gravity called Fessa water supply which makes up thewater supply of the Woreda 55.9 % of the total population.The firstcomprehensive declarationwhich addressed the requirement for public participation indecision-making in water management was made in (1992), TheDublin International Conference on Water and the Environmentestablished guide principles for managing potable water resources withexclusively concerned with public participation. The basic principle statesthat “water development and management should be based on aparticipatory approach, involving users, planners and policy makersat all levels”,Women play acentral role in the provision, management and safeguarding water.
Among Severalchallenges of sustainability of potable water supply is Poor management system,low community participation, non-functionality scheme (Harvery, 2008).Furthermore, potable water supplies from improved sources does not foreverguaranty that the water is secure. The existing operation and maintenancepractices are reactive and are exercised post project the systeminterrupts and stops providing services, and the system may be maintained and operationis depending on the availabilityof materials,spare parts, and capacity of the operators and care takers.
Social andeconomic changes are transforming all the perspectives of active participationof communities. But the challenges that it is how the communities dealwith these changes depends not the service delivery the maintenance ofinfrastructure and economic development, it also involve new ways, workingcooperatively, improving networks, mobilizing existing skills, and puttinginnovative ideas into action. The participation outcomes are not only jobsopportunity, income and infrastructure butalso strongfunctioning communities, better able to manage change for sustainable lifeimprovement (UNICEF, 1992). Experiences inthe region of the ANRS particularly north Gondar zone proved that involving thebeneficiaries have not responsible for the water resources sustainable, toovercame the challenge will create sense of ownership, legitimacy and protection of infrastructure, involving the community in protecting andsafeguarding of the water sources is one of the alternative ways of managingthe water resources in rural areas.
Hence, the motivation of the present studyis to understandhow theinvolvement of people in decision concerning the environment where they livecontributes to sustainability of community based management of water supplyfacilities.